The Two-Class System of Regulation Plaguing Europe

The Dual-Class Regulation System Plaguing Europe’s Financial Landscape

In the fast-paced world of digital finance, the emergence of crypto assets has brought both unprecedented challenges and opportunities for regulators worldwide. The European Union, as the largest governing body in the region, has taken steps to address these issues through the introduction of the Markets in Crypto-Assets Regulation (MiCAR). However, the EU now finds itself at a critical crossroads, faced with the complex task of navigating the intricacies presented by non-custodial crypto asset service providers.

Non-custodial crypto asset service providers, primarily operating within the decentralized finance (DeFi) industry, offer various services related to crypto assets without actually holding custody of the assets themselves. This rapidly growing segment of the crypto finance ecosystem manages approximately $100 billion in locked value, according to While MiCAR aims to establish a standardized framework for crypto-asset services, it currently does not encompass non-custodial providers. This omission highlights a significant gap in the EU’s regulatory framework, as these entities are not obligated to adhere to anti-money laundering (AML) or sanction laws. This situation creates substantial loopholes for potential financial crimes.

Consequently, non-custodial service providers are operating in a space where the risk of fraud, financial losses, and illicit financial activities is significantly higher for investors and consumers. The rise of non-custodial providers reflects the innovative spirit of digital finance. However, the current regulatory frameworks have struggled to keep pace with this rapid innovation. Consequently, the European Union, with its commitment to consumer protection and financial stability, must now address these regulatory shortcomings.

Key debates revolve around whether non-custodial providers should be subject to AML laws. While the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) acknowledges the potential illicit risks of DeFi, the EU’s current proposal excludes these entities, leaving significant gaps. The European Banking Authority (EBA) also highlights the AML risks associated with transactions involving Crypto Asset Service Providers (CASPs), such as transfers to or from self-hosted addresses or decentralized platforms that are not authorized or regulated. Therefore, it is evident that gaps persist within the MiCAR framework, primarily due to its focus on providers that take custody of client assets or operate within traditional financial models. This underscores the urgent need for a more comprehensive and forward-looking regulatory framework, such as an updated MiCAR 2 and AML regulations.

Regulating crypto assets is a global challenge requiring international collaboration and the harmonization of standards to effectively manage the risks associated with digital finance. The insights and expertise from relevant international organizations will be invaluable in navigating the complex challenges and opportunities presented by this dynamic sector.

The European Commission is currently tasked with producing a report that assesses the advantages and challenges of DeFi, potentially leading to future legislation. This cautious approach to regulating emerging crypto sectors prioritizes understanding and market evolution over immediate comprehensive regulation. Consequently, it remains to be seen when non-custodial platforms, including those offering staking services, will be required to implement additional AML and risk management measures for consumer protection. For now, the two-class regulation system remains in place, but it is clear that further steps must be taken to address the regulatory gaps and ensure a safe and secure financial landscape for all stakeholders involved.